Here we will go through the code that derives the GPS Satellite position, the theory behind the method explained here has already been described and you will see that much of the code is very similar to those equations. As we said before this code has been developed using the C programming language as that is the easiest for embedded programming.

We begin by defining several variables that will be used during the calculation.

int eph_sat_pos(int chan, double gps_time) { GPS_structEphemeris *eph; GNSS_structPVT *spvt; double d_toc, n, d_tsv, M_k, E_k, t_k, v_k, theta_k, r_k, u_k, i_k, xp_k, yp_k, omega_k, M_kdot, E_kdot, v_kdot, u_kdot, r_kdot, i_kdot, xp_kdot, yp_kdot, omega_kdot, diff; int count; eph = &ephs[chan]; spvt = &rx_meas[chan].sat_pos.pvt;

We start the process by adjusting the time value to be relative to the time that the ephemeris data supplied by the Satellite is effective. For example if the ephemeris data is for 2:00pm today then we need to say how many seconds before or after 2:00pm we need to calculate the satellite position for. So if we wanted a value for 2:15pm that would be 900, seconds after 2:00pm. Because the GPS system clock has a week and a seconds of the week component, we need to remove the week part from the time, this is what the 604800/302400 logic is doing, compensating for the 604800 seconds in a week.

t_k = gps_time - eph->toe; if(t_k>302400.0) t_k -= 604800.0; else if(t_k<-302400.00) t_k +=604800.0;

First we calculate the Mean Anomaly in Keplers Equations of Orbital motion.

n = SQRTMU/pow(eph->sqrta,3)+eph->delta_n; M_k = eph->m0+n*t_k;

Now we repeat the calculation of Kepler's equation for the Eccentric Anomaly E_k several times, correcting the value used for E_k each time we repeat the process until the change is negligable. There is no way to solve this equation directly and so the solution is arrived at by an iterative approach, getting closer to the true solution with each iteration of the calculation until the desired accuracy has been achieved. For the accuracy required for use in GPS calculation this accuracy is achieved in 7-8 steps.

count = 0; E_k = M_k; do{ diff=M_k-(E_k-eph->ecc*sin(E_k)); E_k+=diff; count++; }while (fabs(diff) > 1.0e-12 && count < 30);

Following the steps outlined in the GPS User guide allows us to calculate the Argument of Latitude theta_k.

if(eph->ecc != 0.0) v_k = atan2(sqrt(1.0-pow(eph->ecc,2))*sin(E_k),cos(E_k)-eph->ecc); else v_k = E_k; theta_k = v_k + eph->w;

At this point the Harmonic Perturbations are applied to the main orbital parameter values. These perturbations are modelled by the Navstar command centre to give more accurate orbital values.

r_k = pow(eph->sqrta,2)*(1.0-eph->ecc*cos(E_k)); r_k+= eph->crc*cos(2.0*theta_k)+eph->crs*sin(2.0*theta_k); u_k = theta_k; u_k+= eph->cus*sin(2.0*theta_k)+eph->cuc*cos(2.0*theta_k); i_k = eph->i0+eph->cic*cos(2.0*theta_k)+eph->cis*sin(2.0*theta_k); i_k+= eph->idot*t_k;

Finally we derive the values of x and y in the orbital plane and then transform to Earth Fixed co-ordinates.

xp_k = r_k*cos(u_k); yp_k = r_k*sin(u_k); omega_k = eph->omega0+(eph->omegadot-OMEGA_E)*t_k; omega_k-= OMEGA_E*eph->toe; omega_kdot = eph->omegadot - OMEGA_E; spvt->clk = d_tsv; spvt->x = xp_k*cos(omega_k)-yp_k*cos(i_k)*sin(omega_k); spvt->y = xp_k*sin(omega_k)+yp_k*cos(i_k)*cos(omega_k); spvt->z = yp_k*sin(i_k);

M_kdot = n; E_kdot = M_kdot/(1.0 - eph->ecc*cos(E_k)); v_kdot = sin(E_k)*E_kdot*(1.0+eph->ecc*cos(v_k)); v_kdot /= sin(v_k)*(1.0-eph->ecc*cos(E_k)); r_kdot = pow(eph->sqrta,2)*eph->ecc*sin(E_k)*n/(1.0-eph->ecc*cos(E_k)); r_kdot+= 2.0*(eph->crs*cos(2.0*u_k)-eph->crc*sin(2.0*u_k))*v_kdot; u_kdot = v_kdot + 2.0*(eph->cus*cos(2.0*u_k)-eph->cuc*sin(2.0*u_k))*v_kdot; i_kdot = eph->idot + 2.0*(eph->cis*cos(2.0*u_k)-eph->cic*sin(2.0*u_k))*v_kdot; xp_kdot = r_kdot*cos(u_k) - yp_k*u_kdot; yp_kdot = r_kdot*sin(u_k) + xp_k*u_kdot; spvt->vx = (xp_kdot-yp_k*cos(i_k)*omega_kdot )*cos(omega_k) - (xp_k*omega_kdot+yp_kdot*cos(i_k)-yp_k*sin(i_k)*i_kdot)*sin(omega_k); spvt->vy = (xp_kdot-yp_k*cos(i_k)*omega_kdot )*sin(omega_k) + (xp_k*omega_kdot+yp_kdot*cos(i_k)-yp_k*sin(i_k)*i_kdot)*cos(omega_k); spvt->vz = yp_kdot*sin(i_k) + yp_k*cos(i_k)*i_kdot; return(0); } © 2018

Similar logic is followed to derive the velocity of the GPS Satellite in Earth Fixed co-ordinates.

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